Hematuria: Symptom and Causes


Some patients are completely symptom-free, especially if the blood is only detectable with a urine dipstick or a microscope. Some associated symptoms can be:
Pain in the flank (often indicates kidney obstruction either from a stone or a blood clot)

Symptoms associated with infection:
  • Mild bladder infection: burning when passing urine, frequent urges to pass urine, cloudy or smelly urine
  • More severe kidney infection: high fevers, shakes and chills, flank pain
Symptoms associated with heavy blood loss:
  • Dizziness or light headedness especially when standing up from a sitting position
  • Pale
  • Fast heart beat
  • Urinary retention (inability to pass urine):ÿIf the blood forms clots in the bladder, they can block the bladder outlet and the patient will have problems passing urine


There are many potential causes for blood in the urine, those most often identified are:
  • Bladder tumour/Bladder infection
  • Cancers of the bladder (pictured), kidney or prostate
  • Stones in the kidneys or bladder
  • Inflammation of the kidneys (nephritis)
  • Urinary tract injuries
  • Blood disorders (e.g. sickle cell disease, clotting disorders, anticoagulant and anti-platelet drugs)
  • Strenuous exercise
    Other causes, including less common infections (e,g. TB, schistosomiasis)

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