What is Typhoid Vaccine?Typhoid vaccines are vaccines that prevent typhoid fever. Typhoid fever is an infectious illness caused by a bacterium, Salmonella typhi. It is caused and spread by eating or drinking contaminated food or water. The main signs of the illness include headache, pains in the stomach, constipation or diarrhoea and a fever that may last for one or two weeks. Patients normally get better after about four weeks, but relapses can occur.
Two types of Typhoid Vaccines are used.
- Oral ty21a vaccine: This is an oral live vaccine.
- Vi-polysaccharide conjugate typhoid vaccine -Typbar-TCV. At present, the only typhoid vaccine available in our country is the Vi polysaccharide vaccine.
Typhoid Vaccine Immunization Schedule
- 9-12 months- Currently, two typhoid conjugate vaccines, Typbar-TCV and PedaTyph available in Indian market. An interval of at least 4 weeks with the MMR vaccine should be maintained while administering this vaccine
- Should follow a booster at 2 years of age. Either Typbar-TCV or Vi-polysaccharide (Vi-PS) can be employed as booster.
EffectivenessSince both these vaccines do not induce cell mediated immunity, the protective efficacy lasts for 2-3 years in most of the vaccines and booster doses are required every 2-3 years.
Side effectsInactivated Typhoid Vaccine (Shot)
- Fever (up to about 1 person per 100).
- Headache (up to about 1 person in 30).
- Redness or swelling at the site of the injection (up to about 1 person in 15).
- Fever or headache (up to about 1 person in 20).
- Stomach pain, nausea, vomiting, rash (rare).