Today I will speak about hypertension which is a major contributor to cardiovascular diseases and death in India and world wide. 40% people above 25 years are affected by high BP. It is interesting to note that majority of cases are preventable with grit and determination and firm commitments. One can lead healthy life style and maintain normal BP except in case of hereditary and secondary hypertension.
Prevention starts from childhood!First step: Primordial Prevention i.e. prevention of emergence of risk factors like obesity which is increasing day by day. Good eating habits has to be inculcated in children, comprising of fruits, vegetables, milk, curds, egg, fish, rice, chapatti and avoid fast food like pizza, burger, cake pastry etc. Ensure that child does not develop obesity and does not have a habit of taking various type of salty-snacks like NAMKEENS. Sodium in any form leads to high BP in 26% of urban population. School-going children should be encouraged to participate in outdoor games. Parents should peer the peers to prevent substance abuse in them. Lot of discipline, perseverance and efforts are required from the parents for a healthy development of their children. 2nd step: Primary Prevention i.e. prevention of risk factors like obesity, hyperlipidemia, sedentary life style. High intake of salt, stress, more consumption of alcohol, cessation of smoking, high consumption of saturated fats and carbohydrates. 3rd step: Secondary prevention is early diagnosis and treatment since time lag between the disease’s onset and its final critical point is sufficiently long in hypertension. Its severity can be curtailed early by screening at 30 years of age. Co-morbidity DM and high lipid level is dangerous combination, individual should be screened for high blood sugar, lipid profile, kidney function test and liver function test even for basic data. 4th step: Tertiary prevention means prevention of complications. Maintain normal BP by taking antihypertensive drugs regularly:
- High BP affects kidneys – watch out for normal kidney functions
- Periodic check up of eyes for retinopathy
- Deadly complications are heart attacks and stroke
- Daily care of feet and legs for any cuts or injuries – because pain sensation will not be there in someone with Diabetes. Since both the diseases coexist and NEUROPATHY is an early complication of DM.
If you are already hypertensive..One has to follow a time table of drug intake, regular check up of BP and periodic investigation to prevent complications. mTatva HealthPIE App can be very useful here. A person who has unhealthy habits has acquired them very gradually and changing them becomes a difficult preposition. Such people need persuasiveness as well as persistent appeal on part of healthcare providers – and here again the HealthPIE App will be immensely helpful.
Beat Stress by ExercisingExcessive stress is most harmful therefore time has to be devoted to yoga and meditation in addition to regular exercise for 45 minutes daily. There is no alternative but to invest more time in health. I say 80-90 minutes a day. Do you think it is too much? No! If you develop these diseases – you will end up spending much more time in visiting hospitals and doctors, including commuting time. Also, imagine the cost of drugs involved for a life-long medication! Staying healthy will also keep you away from side effects of drugs on you body and the lingering taste. Keep self motivated and self-determined, develop interest in keeping your body and mind fit. Please spare some time to read all my articles related to healthy life style. More you read, more you develop interest and you will automatically practice healthy life style!
Blood Pressure – NumbersIdeal BP: 120/80 mmHg High Normal: 120-140/80-90 mmHg normal for above 60 years age Stage I hypertension: 140-159/90-99 mmHg Stage II Hypertension: >160/>100 mmHg Now let us see how much you can reduce Blood Pressure by Healthy Life style:
- By reducing Weight, maintaining Normal BMI 19-23 (Wt in kg divided by square of ht in meters) one can reduce 8-14 mm of systolic BP per 10 kg loss.
- DASH: Dietary Approach to Stop Hypertension- Five a day and five colors a day – more so rainbow color diet, rich in fruits and vegetables, low fat diary product with reduced contents of saturated and total fats can reduce BP 2-8 mm of systolic BP.
- Dietary sodium: by reducing dietary sodium chloride 5-6 gram daily can reduce BP 4-9 mm of systolic BP.
- Physical Activity: Engaging in regular aerobic exercise and brisk walk etc can reduce 4-9 mmHg.
- Modification of alcohol consumption: Intake not more than 30/60 ml, and not on consecutive days will bring down BP by 2-4 mmHg.