Diabetes Type1: Meaning, Diagnosis and Overview

What is Diabetes Type1?

  • Diabetes is a disorder of metabolism. The food we eat is broken down into glucose (a form of sugar) which is the main source of energy. Insulin works along with glucose to help it enter the body cells to be burned for energy. Insulin is a hormone produced by the pancreas, a large gland behind the stomach.
  • In people with diabetes, the pancreas either produces little or no insulin, or the cells do not respond appropriately to the insulin that is produced.  This causes glucose levels in the blood to rise, creating a condition of high blood sugar or diabetes.
  • Type 1 diabetes occurs because the insulin-producing cells of the pancreas (beta cells) get damaged and thus results in little or no insulin production, so glucose cannot get into the body cells for use as energy.
  • It is common in children and young adults
Type 1 Diabetes overview

Recovery Time

There is no recovery from diabetes. Maintaining the correct weight, proper exercising, and diet can help you control it to have a normal life.


  Diagnosis is done by some urine and blood tests
  • Glycated hemoglobin (A1C) test
  • Random blood sugar test
  • Fasting blood sugar test
  • Oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT)
  Oral Glucose Tolerance test

FAQs prepared by doctor

Q1.  What is Diabetes Type1?
Diabetes Type1 or Juvenile Diabetes is caused due to complete destruction of Beta cells of Pancreas (which secrete insulin). This leads to non-utilization of glucose by the muscles and glucose in the blood is excreted in the urine.

Q2.  How do I get Diabetes Type1?
You get Diabetes Type1 if you are genetically predisposed or your immune system produces antibodies against Beta cells of pancreas or due to some virus infection. The exact mechanism is unknown.

Q3.  What is the treatment for Diabetes Type1?
A regular insulin injection as per blood glucose levels, to keep the blood glucose levels as close to normal is the treatment of Diabetes Type1. Along with strict Diet and moderate exercise.

Q4.  What are the complications of Diabetes Type1?
  • There are immediate and late complications of Diabetes Type1.
  • Immediate complications are Diabetic Ketoacidosis due to low insulin levels and hypoglycaemia due to high insulin levels, if the insulin injections are not titrated properly according to blood glucose levels.
  • Late complications are due to persistent high glucose levels in the blood over years. These include end organ damage like Kidney failure, Diabetic retinopathy, Peripheral and Autonomic Neuropathy, Diabetic foot and Heart disease.

Q5.  Can I live a normal life with Diabetes Type1?
Yes, you can a live a normal life with Diabetes Type1, provided you keep the blood glucose levels in normal limits with Regular injection of insulin tittered according to blood glucose levels and strict diet. Regular blood tests are also recommended to watch for complications and proactive treatment accordingly.

Q6.  How do I prevent Diabetes Type 1?
Diabetes Type 1 cannot be prevented as the causative factor cannot be determined.

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