Pernicious Anemia: Symptom and Causes


In adults, symptoms of pernicious anemia are usually not seen until after age 30. The average age of diagnosis is age 60.
  • Tiredness
  • Headaches
  • Chest pain
  • Weight loss
  • Shortness of breath
  • Dizziness
  • Diarrhoea or constipation
  • Coldness, numbness or tingling in your hands and feet
  • Pale or yellowish skin
  • Loss of appetite
  • Swollen, red tongue or bleeding gums
  • Confusion 
  • Depression


  • Weakened stomach lining (atrophic gastritis).
  • An autoimmune condition in which the body immune system attacks intrinsic factor protein or the cells that make it.
  • Certain drugs used for other conditions may affect the absorption of vitamin B12 e.g.:- metformin.
  • Dietary causes especially vegans who do not take animal or dairy products.

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